Thursday, 27 March 2014

"Paragraph Structure"

Hi mates, here are some information on "Paragraph Structure". Knowing these, may help our writing to be better,clearer and impactful. 

What is paragraph


It is a group of related sentences that discuss ONE MAIN IDEA (and usually ONLY one). It can be as short as one sentence or as long as 10 sentences. The number of sentence is NOT important! However, the paragraph should be long enough to develop OUR MAIN idea clearly.


Basically, PERLU Di ingat, ONE IDEA, ONE paragraph. Ayat lain di gunakan untuk menyokong IDEA tersebut. Contoh:- (contoh je tau).



2014 is ‘Visit Malaysia’ year. The Ministry of Tourism has lined up numerous Malaysian events throughout the year. All events are arranged and tailored on a weekly basis at diverse venues around Malaysia. The programmes, organised by Malaysia’s Ministry of Tourism, include Anniversary of UNESCO World Heritage City Celebration, Malaysia Water Festival, KL 1Malaysia Family Fair, and many more. They run in all 14 states of Malaysia. They are purposely created to ‘pull’ local and international tourists to visit Malaysia.   

(What I am trying to explain here, Visit Malaysia, 2014 = main idea, The Ministry of Tourism, events, venues, programmes, UNESCO World Heritage .... other events all are the supporting sentence to explain on the main idea).

Other explanation, 
All paragraphs have a TOPIC SENTENCE and SUPPORTING SENTENCE, and some paragraphs also have a CONCLUDING SENTENCE

1) What is TOPIC SENTENCE?
It states the main idea of the paragraph. It not only names the topic of the paragraph, but it also limits the topic to one specific area that can be discussed completely in the space of a single paragraph. (please read many times this sentence, you will understand better).

The part of the topic sentence that announces the specific area to be discussed is called the CONTROLLING IDEA.   Notice how the topic sentence of the model states both the topic and the controlling idea:
Contoh:
Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. 
Gold = Topic       Two important characteristics  = controlling idea. 

Important!
Every good paragraph has a topic sentence, which clearly states the topic and the controlling idea of the paragraph. It is the most important sentence in a paragraph. Briefly, it indicates what the paragraph is going to discuss. For this reason, the topic sentence is a helpful guide to both the writer and the reader. The writer can see what information to include (what information to exclude). The reader can see what the paragraph is going to be about and is therefore better prepared to understand it. 

Here are three important points to remember about a topic sentence. Remember, a topic sentence is a complete sentence; that is, it contains at least ONE SUBJECT and ONE VERB. The following are NOT COMPLETE sentences because they do not have verb:

Driving on freeways. 
How to register for college classes.
The rise of indie film.

A topic sentence contains both a topic and a controlling idea. It names the topic and then limits the topic to a specific are to be discussed in the space of a single paragraph. 

          topic                              controlling idea.

Driving on freeways requires skill and alertness

How to register for college classes can be a frustrating experience for new students.

The rise of indie film is due to several factors

A topic sentence is the most general statement in the paragraph because it gives only the main idea. It does not give any specific details. A topic sentence is like the name of a particular course on a restaurant menu. When you order food in a restaurant, you want to know more about a particular course than just "meat" or "soup" or "salad". You want to know generally what kind of salad it is. Potato salad? Mixed green salad? Fruit salad? However, you do not necessarily want to know all the ingredients. Similarly, a reader wants to know generally what to expect in a paragraph, but he or she does not want to learn all the details in the first sentence. 

Position of Topic Sentences
The topic sentence is usually (but not always) the first sentence in a paragraph. Experiences writers sometimes put topic sentences in other locations but the best spot is usually right at the beginning. Readers who are used to the English way of writing want to know what they will read about as soon as they begin reading.

2)  What is SUPPORTING SENTENCE
It develops the topic sentence. It explains or prove the topic sentence by giving more information about it. Some examples  

3)  What is CONCLUDING SENTENCE 
It signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader with important points to remember. 

more topics to share after this...  see you soon mates... 

Sunday, 16 March 2014

"Academic writing"

... sharing my knowledge on the academic writing,...

March, 15, 2014, I attended a writing workshop. The speaker was a very experienced Professor from University of Queensland. Well, when people mentioned "Professor", we can just at a glance think of how a Professor looks like.... "Albert Einstein"Not all Professors lookalike him, he is ONE in A BILLION.

Well, I managed to record his speech at the second hour of his workshop. At the beginning, he talks and stresses on the proper usage of grammar. I have his booklet too. I promise, I will re-write some useful points in this blog.

My reason of writing here, nothing but to share the information I gathered yesterday, primarily to share these with all the "Doctorate Support Group". I hope it will be useful to all of US. Knowledge is a powerful weapon! 

Writing?
            GATHERING INFORMATION, LINK IDEAS, AND THEN COMPOSE THEM IN COHERENT PROSE. IN OTHER WORDS, WE MOVE FROM IDEA TO WORD, FROM WORD TO SYNTAX, FROM SYNTAX TO SEMANTICS. (jangan gabrah, kita belajar sikit terminologi ni).

Let's learn a little bit what we are supposed to learn during our Primary and Secondary era,..(a minute,...)
Syntax? Ape bende ni? well, read on...
              FROM A VERY EARLY AGE, WE ACQUIRE THE CAPACITY TO SAY WORDS, REPLACING OTHER MEANS OF REPRESENTATION (eg. "brmmmm brmmmm for car or hand gesture for twinkle twinkle little star).  THAT IS, WE DEVELOP A VOCABULARY (or lexicon). THEN WE DEVELOP TO ORGANISE A GROUP OF WORDS INTO A STATEMENT. THIS IS CALLED SYNTAX, THE ABILITY TO "COMBINE WORDS IN GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT WAYS AND TO UNDERSTAND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE AND WORD ORDER" (Ruffman et al, 2003, p. 140).

Semantics? pulak?
                   NEXT STAGE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IS SEMANTICS, THE CAPACITY TO UNDERSTAND HOW VARIATIONS IN WORD ORDER PRODUCE DIFFERENT MEANINGS: Mummy kisses Lucy" vs "Lucy kisses Mummy". Language psychologist can assess these attributes in very young children with test such as the Test Early Language Development (TELD). A better definition of Semantics is "THE CAPACITY TO UNDERSTAND THE INTENTION FROM THE WORDS" (Ruffman et al, 2003, p. 140). This means that people can metarepresent, or from an impression in their head when you make an utterance. Imagine how complex the following statement would be for a young child: The napkins are located in the bottom left hand drawer of the sideboard in the dining room. What does this tell us? THAT IS WHY, I EARLIER SAID, jangan gabrah, kita belajar sikit terminologi ni....

MATURE LANGUAGE REQUIRES

  • VOCABULARY
  • SYNTAX
  • SEMANTICS
  • Planning, translating, revising or Pre-writing
  • Drafting
  • Reviewing 
  • Pre-linguistic (memory and schema at work)
  • Data retrieval and selection >> organising >> goal setting
  • Turns thought into language
  • Two cognitives level: formulating and sequential ordering of ideas; mechanical aspects (spelling, grammar, punctuation). Prioritise the ideas.
  • Examining the text you produced
  • Correcting the text can be shallow or complex
  • CDO: Compare, Diagnose, Act: Compare mental representation & actual text. Need for distance from this diagnosis >>action. 

  Read on mates ...

Okay let's move on to our objectives here. I am not letting everyone to read on the basic English. Once we get ourselves to write our theses in English, we MUST know all these TERMS comprehensively! Let me know if anyone still require them in detail, I will share with you! Jangan malu dan segan, Knowledge is a powerful weapon!  :) 

I leave the basic english topic 1000km now, and move on to the "WRITING AS A PROCESS", (1000 km, that mean, banyak tau information tentang 'to strengthen our writing in english tips'... again, let me know if anyone still require, I don't mind to go back to the basic to share the knowledge...

WRITING AS A PROCESS
Pre-writing
Drafting
Reviewing (revise, Edit, Proofread)
Did anyone knows whether you are in the circle of "Additive Writing" (AW)? or otherwise? Let us check along 'what does AW mean...


  Knowing the symptoms of AW


    Knowing, characteristics of the INEXPERIENCED WRITER, are you? 


    You MUST know, what is GENRES

  Read on mates ...

  The important of COHERENCE & COHESION in your PARAGRAPHS 
 

The write narrows the FOCUS from the GENERAL to the PARTICULAR throughout the paragraph. The first sentence sets up a GENERAL STATEMENT. Introduced by 'These attempts', the second sentence then states a strong proposition. The third sentence, telegraphs a less assertive proposition ('Perhaps') that provides a possible explanation for the claim in the second sentence. The fourth sentence builds a conversational tone to develop the silliness of the idea that a social science is more 'natural' than a biophysical science.,.. make judgement on this absurd proposition in the previous sentence. The final sentence draws a conclusion (modalised by 'may be')...

Next.... What is COHERENCE and COHESION? Are all these important in our writing?... the answer is YES, mates!


  ... I'm leaving away a few hundred kilometres again, to begin on STYLE ..(I left some              point notes behind. :( )


   Read on mates....


  
   Read on mates ... 

    Read on more mates,.. 

    more mates,..

   ,..go and browse your facebook, if you started to yawn,. or go and gosok gigi ye,... 





    I'm leaving away some guidelines,... penat gak bila ambil gambar dan upload,  
    ehmmm, but for you mates (DSG)...read on... 

    Read on...

    more...

    more... 

    .. read on... 







  We move on to PUNCTUATION...

   read on...read on... 


   ... slip of the mind,.. read on,... 

   ... last but not least,.. read on...mates...



     happy studying,... 
                            a little bit about myself,

I am in the midst of doing my PhD in Tourism Management, at the Business School of University of Queensland, Australia. May ALLAH bless me in the process of completing my research writing, and also in my life journey. Insya'allah. ... here I am...look on mates!



"Paragraph Structure"

Hi mates, here are some information on "Paragraph Structure". Knowing these, may help our writing to be better,clearer and impactf...